Digital audio watermarking for broadcast monitoring and content identification
Healy, Ron (2010) Digital audio watermarking for broadcast monitoring and content identification. Masters thesis, National University of Ireland, Maynooth..
Copyright legislation was prompted exactly 300 years ago by a desire to protect authors against exploitation of their work by others. With regard to modern content owners, Digital Rights Management (DRM) issues have become very important since the advent of the Internet. Piracy, or illegal copying, costs content owners billions of dollars every year. DRM is just one tool that can assist content owners in exercising their rights. Two categories of DRM technologies have evolved in digital signal processing recently, namely digital fingerprinting and digital watermarking. One area of Copyright that is consistently overlooked in DRM developments is 'Public Performance'. The research described in this thesis analysed the administration of public performance rights within the music industry in general, with specific focus on the collective rights and broadcasting sectors in Ireland. Limitations in the administration of artists' rights were identified. The impact of these limitations on the careers of developing artists was evaluated. A digital audio watermarking scheme is proposed that would meet the requirements of both the broadcast and collective rights sectors. The goal of the scheme is to embed a standard identifier within an audio signal via modification of its spectral properties in such a way that it would be robust and perceptually transparent. Modification of the audio signal spectrum was attempted in a variety of ways. A method based on a super-resolution frequency identification technique was found to be most effective. The watermarking scheme was evaluated for robustness and found to be extremely effective in recovering embedded watermarks in music signals using a semi-blind decoding process. The final digital audio watermarking algorithm proposed facilitates the development of other applications in the domain of broadcast monitoring for the purposes of equitable royalty distribution along with additional applications and extension to other domains.
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