van Kempen, T.A. and Kristensen, L.E. and Herczeg, G.J. and Visser, R. and van Dishoeck, E.F. and Wampfler, S.F. and Bruderer, S. and Benz, A.O. and Doty, S.D. and Brinch, C. and Hogerheijde, M.R. and Jorgensen, J.K. and Tafalla, M. and Neufeld, D. and Bachiller, R. and Baudry, A. and Benedettini, M. and Bergin, E.A. and Bjerkeli, P. and Blake, G.A. and Bontemps, S. and Braine, J. and Caselli, P. and Cernicharo, J. and Codella, C. and Daniel, F. and Di Giorgio, A.M. and Dominik, C. and Encrenaz, P. and Fich, M. and Fuente, A. and Giannini, T. and Goicoechea, J.R. and de Graauw, Th. and Helmich, F. and Herpin, F. and Jacq, T. and Johnstone, D. and Kaufman, M.J. and Larsson, B. and Lis, D.C. and Liseau, R. and Marseille, M. and McCoey, C. and Melnick, G. and Nisini, B. and Olberg, M. and Parise, B. and Pearson, J.C. and Plume, R. and Risacher, C. and Santiago-Garcia, J. and Saraceno, P. and Shipman, R. and van der Tak, F. and Wyrowski, F. and Yildiz, U.A. and Ciechanowicz, M. and Dubbeldam, L. and Glenz, S. and Huisman, R. and Lin, R.H. and Morris, P. and Murphy, J.A. and Trappe, N.
Origin of the hot gas in low-mass protostars,
Herschel-PACS spectroscopy of HH 46.
Astronomy & Astrophysics, 518 (L.121).
Aims. “Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel” (WISH) is a Herschel key programme aimed at understanding the physical and chemical
structure of young stellar objects (YSOs) with a focus on water and related species.
Methods. The low-mass protostar HH 46 was observed with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel Space
Observatory to measure emission in H2O, CO, OH, [O i], and [C ii] lines located between 63 and 186 μm. The excitation and spatial distribution
of emission can disentangle the different heating mechanisms of YSOs, with better spatial resolution and sensitivity than previously possible.
Results. Far-IR line emission is detected at the position of the protostar and along the outflow axis. The OH emission is concentrated at the
central position, CO emission is bright at the central position and along the outflow, and H2O emission is concentrated in the outflow. In addition,
[O i] emission is seen in low-velocity gas, assumed to be related to the envelope, and is also seen shifted up to 170 km s−1 in both the red- and
blue-shifted jets. Envelope models are constructed based on previous observational constraints. They indicate that passive heating of a spherical
envelope by the protostellar luminosity cannot explain the high-excitation molecular gas detected with PACS, including CO lines with upper levels
at >2500 K above the ground state. Instead, warm CO and H2O emission is probably produced in the walls of an outflow-carved cavity in the
envelope, which are heated by UV photons and non-dissociative C-type shocks. The bright OH and [Oi] emission is attributed to J-type shocks in
dense gas close to the protostar. In the scenario described here, the combined cooling by far-IR lines within the central spatial pixel is estimated to
be 2 × 10−2 L, with 60–80% attributed to J- and C-type shocks produced by interactions between the jet and the envelope.
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