Development of A Versatile Multichannel CWNIRS Instrument for Optical Brain-Computer Interface Applications
Soraghan, Christopher John (2010) Development of A Versatile Multichannel CWNIRS Instrument for Optical Brain-Computer Interface Applications. PhD thesis, National University of Ireland Maynooth.
This thesis describes the design, development, and implementation of a versatile multichannel continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) instrument for brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. Specifically, it was of interest to assess what gains could be achieved by using a multichannel device compared to the single channel device implemented by Coyle in 2004. Moreover, the multichannel approach allows for the assessment of localisation of functional tasks in the cerebral cortex, and can identify lateralisation of haemodynamic responses to motor events. The approach taken to extend single channel to multichannel was based on a software-controlled interface. This interface allowed flexibility in the control of individual optodes including their synchronisation and modulation (AM, TDM, CDMA). Furthermore, an LED driver was developed for custom-made triple-wavelength LEDs. The system was commissioned using a series of experiments to verify the performance of individual components in the system. The system was then used to carry out a set of functional studies including motor imagery and cognitive tasks. The experimental protocols based on motor imagery and overt motor tasks were verified by comparison with fMRI. The multichannel approach identified stroke rehabilitation as a new application area for optical BCI. In addition, concentration changes in deoxyhaemoglobin were identified as being a more localised indicator of functional activity, which is important for effective BCI design. An assessment was made on the effect of the duration of the stimulus period on the haemodynamic signals. This demonstrated the possible benefits of using a shorter stimulus period to reduce the adverse affects of low blood pressure oscillations. ii
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