Ade, P.A.R. and Aghanim, N. and Arnaud, M. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Baker, M. and Balbi, A. and Banday, A.J. and Barreiro, R.B. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoit, A. and Bernard, J.-P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bhandari, P. and Bhatia, R. and Bock, J.J. and Bonaldi, A. and Bond, J.R. and Borders, J. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F.R. and Bowman, B. and Bradshaw, T. and Breelle, E. and Bucher, M. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R.C. and Cabella, P. and Camus, P. and Cantalupo, C.M. and Cappellini, B. and Cardoso, J.-F. and Catalano, A. and Cayon, L. and Challinor, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chambelland, J.P. and Charra, J. and Charra, M. and Chiang, L.-Y. and Chiang, C. and Christensen, P.R. and Clements, D.L. and Collaudin, B. and Colombi, S. and Couchot, F. and Coulais, A. and Crill, B.P. and Crook, M. and Cuttaia, F. and Damasio, C. and Danese, L. and Davies, R.D. and Davis, R.J. and De Bernardis, P. and de Gasperis, G. and de Rosa, A. and Delabrouille, J. and Delouis, J.-M. and Desert, F.-X. and Dolag, K. and Donzelli, S. and Dore, O. and Dorl, U. and Douspis, M. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Enßlin, T.A. and Eriksen, H.K. and Filliard, C. and Finelli, F. and Foley, S. and Forni, O. and Fosalba, P. and Fourmond, J.-J. and Frailis, M. and Franceschi, E. and Galeotta, S. and Ganga, K. and Gavila, E. and Giard, M. and Giardino, G. and Giraud-Héraud, Y. and Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. and Gorski, K.M. and Gratton, S. and Gregorio, A. and Grupposo, A. and Guyot, G. and Harrison, D. and Helou, G. and Henrot-Versille, S. and Hernandes-Monteagudo, C. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S.R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W.A. and Hornstrup, A. and Hovest, W. and Hoyland, R.J. and Huffenberger, K.M. and Israelsson, U. and Jaffe, A.H. and Jones, W.C. and Juvela, M. and Keihanen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T.S. and Kneissl, R. and Knox, L. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lamarre, J.-M. and Lami, P. and Lasenby, A. and Laureijs, R.J. and Lavabre, A. and Lawrence, C.R. and Leach, S. and Lee, R. and Leonardi, R. and Leroy, C. and Lilje, P.B. and Lopez-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P.M. and Macias-Perez, J.F. and Maciaszek, T. and MacTavish, C.J. and Maffei, B. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Mann, R. and Maris, M. and Martinez-Gonzalez, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and Matthai, F. and Mazzotta, P. and McGehee, P. and Meinhold, P.R. and Melchiorri, A. and Melot, F. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Miville-Deschenes, M.-A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Mora, J. and Morgante, G. and Morisset, N. and Mortlock, D. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, A. and Naselsky, P. and Nash, A. and Natoli, P. and Netterfield, C.B. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and O'Dwyer, I.J. and Osborne, S. and Pajot, F. and Pasian, F. and Patanchon, G. and Pearson, D. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Perrotta, F. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Plaszczynski, S. and Platania, P. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Ponthieu, N. and Poutanen, T. and Prezeau, G. and Prina, M. and Prunet, S. and Rachen, J.P. and Rebolo, R. and Reinecke, M. and Renault, C. and Ricciardi, S. and Riller, T. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Rubino-Martin, J.A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savini, G. and Schaefer, B.M. and Scott, D. and Seiffert, M.D. and Shellard, P. and Smoot, G.F. and Starck, J.-L. and Stassi, P. and Stivoli, F. and Stolyarov, V. and Stompor, R. and Sudiwala, R. and Sygnet, J.-F. and Tauber, J.A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Torre, J.-P. and Tristram, M. and Tuovinen, J. and Valenziano, L. and Vibert, L. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Vittorio, N. and Wade, L.A. and Wandelt, B.D. and Watson, C. and White, S.D.M. and Wilkinson, A. and Wilson, P. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zhang, B. and Zonca, A.
Planck early results. II. The thermal performance of Planck.
Astronomy & Astrophysics, 536 (A2).
The performance of the Planck instruments in space is enabled by their low operating temperatures, 20 K for LFI and 0.1 K for HFI, achieved
through a combination of passive radiative cooling and three active mechanical coolers. The scientific requirement for very broad frequency
coverage led to two detector technologies with widely different temperature and cooling needs. Active coolers could satisfy these needs; a helium
cryostat, as used by previous cryogenic space missions (IRAS, COBE, ISO, Spitzer, AKARI), could not. Radiative cooling is provided by three
V-groove radiators and a large telescope baffle. The active coolers are a hydrogen sorption cooler (<20 K), a 4He Joule-Thomson cooler (4.7 K),
and a 3He-4He dilution cooler (1.4 K and 0.1 K). The flight system was at ambient temperature at launch and cooled in space to operating
conditions. The HFI bolometer plate reached 93 mK on 3 July 2009, 50 days after launch. The solar panel always faces the Sun, shadowing the
rest of Planck, and operates at a mean temperature of 384 K. At the other end of the spacecraft, the telescope baffle operates at 42.3 K and the
telescope primary mirror operates at 35.9 K. The temperatures of key parts of the instruments are stabilized by both active and passive methods.
Temperature fluctuations are driven by changes in the distance from the Sun, sorption cooler cycling and fluctuations in gas-liquid flow, and
fluctuations in cosmic ray flux on the dilution and bolometer plates. These fluctuations do not compromise the science data.
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