Planck early results. IX. XMM-Newton follow-up for validation of Planck cluster candidates
Aghanim, N. and Arnaud, M. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Balbi, A. and Banday, A.J. and Barreiro, R.B. and Bartelmann, M. and Bartlett, J.G. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoit, A. and Bernard, J.-P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bhatia, R. and Bock, J.J. and Bonaldi, A. and Bond, J.R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F.R. and Brown, M.L. and Bucher, M. and Burigana, C. and Cabella, P. and Cantalupo, C.M. and Cardoso, J.-F. and Carvalho, P. and Catalano, A. and Cayon, L. and Challinor, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chiang, L.-Y. and Chon, G. and Christensen, P.R. and Churazov, E. and Clements, D.L. and Colafrancesco, S. and Colombi, S. and Couchot, F. and Coulais, A. and Crill, B.P. and Cuttaia, F. and Da Silva, A. and Dahle, H. and Danese, L. and De Bernardis, P. and de Gasperis, G. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Delouis, J.-M. and Desert, F.-X. and Diego, J.M. and Dolag, K. and Donzelli, S. and Dore, O. and Dorl, U. and Douspis, M. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Enßlin, T.A. and Finelli, F. and Flores-Cacho, I. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Franceschi, E. and Fromenteau, S. and Galeotta, S. and Ganga, K. and Genova-Santos, R.T. and Giard, M. and Giardino, G. and Giraud-Héraud, Y. and Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. and Gonzalez-Riestra, R. and Gorski, K.M. and Gratton, S. and Gregorio, A. and Grupposo, A. and Harrison, D. and Heinamaki, P. and Henrot-Versille, S. and Hernandes-Monteagudo, C. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S.R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W.A. and Hovest, W. and Hoyland, R.J. and Huffenberger, K.M. and Hurier, G. and Jaffe, A.H. and Juvela, M. and Keihanen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T.S. and Kneissl, R. and Knox, L. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lamarre, J.-M. and Lasenby, A. and Laureijs, R.J. and Lawrence, C.R. and Le Jeune, M. and Leach, S. and Leonardi, R. and Liddle, A. and Linden-Vornle, M. and Lopez-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P.M. and Macias-Perez, J.F. and Maffei, B. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Mann, R. and Maris, M. and Marleau, F. and Martinez-Gonzalez, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and Matthai, F. and Mazzotta, P. and Melchiorri, A. and Melin, J.-B. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Mitra, S. and Miville-Deschenes, M.-A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, A. and Naselsky, P. and Natoli, P. and Netterfield, C.B. and Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Osborne, S. and Pajot, F. and Pasian, F. and Patanchon, G. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Perrotta, F. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Pierpaoli, E. and Piffaretti, R. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Ponthieu, N. and Poutanen, T. and Pratt, G.W. and Prezeau, G. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J.-L. and Rebolo, R. and Reinecke, M. and Renault, C. and Ricciardi, S. and Riller, T. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Rubino-Martin, J.A. and Rusholme, B. and Saar, E. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Schaefer, B.M. and Scott, D. and Seiffert, M.D. and Smoot, G.F. and Starck, J.-L. and Stivoli, F. and Stolyarov, V. and Sunyaev, R. and Sygnet, J.-F. and Tauber, J.A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Torre, J.-P. and Tristram, M. and Tuovinen, J. and Valenziano, L. and Vibert, L. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Vittorio, N. and Wandelt, B.D. and White, S.D.M. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A. (2011) Planck early results. IX. XMM-Newton follow-up for validation of Planck cluster candidates. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 536 (A9). pp. 1-20. ISSN 0004-6361
We present the XMM-Newton follow-up for confirmation of Planck cluster candidates. Twenty-five candidates have been observed to date using snapshot (∼10 ks) exposures, ten as part of a pilot programme to sample a low range of signal-to-noise ratios (4 < S/N < 6), and a further 15 in a programme to observe a sample of S/N > 5 candidates. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of XMM-Newton allows unambiguous discrimination between clusters and false candidates. The 4 false candidates have S/N ≤ 4.1. A total of 21 candidates are confirmed as extended X-ray sources. Seventeen are single clusters, the majority of which are found to have highly irregular and disturbed morphologies (about ∼70%). The remaining four sources are multiple systems, including the unexpected discovery of a supercluster at z = 0.45. For 20 sources we are able to derive a redshift estimate from the X-ray Fe K line (albeit of variable quality). The new clusters span the redshift range 0.09 <∼ z <∼ 0.54, with a median redshift of z ∼ 0.37. A first determination is made of their X-ray properties including the characteristic size, which is used to improve the estimate of the SZ Compton parameter, Y500. The follow-up validation programme has helped to optimise the Planck candidate selection process. It has also provided a preview of the X-ray properties of these newly-discovered clusters, allowing comparison with their SZ properties, and to the X-ray and SZ properties of known clusters observed in the Planck survey. Our results suggest that Planck may have started to reveal a non-negligible population of massive dynamically perturbed objects that is under-represented in X-ray surveys. However, despite their particular properties, these new clusters appear to follow the Y500–YX relation established for X-ray selected objects, where YX is the product of the gas mass and temperature.
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